The origin of the collie is quite vague. The earliest mention of it, which managed to find researchers who belong to the XIV century. Renowned poet John Chosser collie mentions in his poems. Later Collie has not often mentioned in the literature, but the earlier period of these magnificent dogs remains a mystery. Scientists still only build theories about the origin and the progenitor of the breed.
The most popular theory is that on which the collie was brought to Scotland by the Romans. These dogs accompanied by their livestock, and firmly established in the local territories. Opponents of this theory argue that the Collie is a descendant of the ancient pastoral breeds who inhabited Scotland and the northern part of Europe for a long time.
Many scientists conducted a thorough analysis of the proportions and structure of the dog's body, concluded that the most likely both theories are true, and at the beginnings of collie breed stand as Old English sheepdogs and brought the Romans and other foreigners breed.
Features fauna of the British Isles have meant that the character collie eliminates aggression. The researchers attribute this to the lack of wolves in the islands. Developing in a quiet peaceful environment is the quality of aggressiveness has been completely erased.
Another feature of the breed is that for a long time they have firmly established the concept of "the pack." When they had to graze large flocks of sheep, dogs clearly saw to it that not a single member of the flock did not go beyond it. If this happens, the dog barking drove the animal back. Such habits have survived to this day. Many owners are surprised that the same behavior of their pets and show to the people. If the dog goes with the overall company, and someone suddenly fighting off the "flock" Collie immediately gets nervous and tries to drive away the people together.
The development collie traced division into two main lines. There was a split in the late XVIII century. While a huge contribution to the development of the breed has made Queen Victoria. Assessing the external beauty of the dogs, the queen took a few copies with me. An active selection in the direction effektnosti breed. These dogs have been used for entertainment as companions.
The second line was represented by the same herding dogs, which, although they were not as beautiful as the appearance of their "royal" to gather, but still perfectly coped with his herding duties. The breed gained the name of border collies.
After Queen Victoria presented for all to see representatives of the Scottish Shepherd, their popularity began to grow rapidly. In 1881, it developed the official standard of the breed. Accordingly, the standard basic color, at that time, Collie was black and black and white. The numerous color variations, which we see today are a direct result of breeding.
Collie gained international recognition in the early twentieth century. They spread rapidly in the United States, the Soviet Union, Australia and other countries. They are flexible, and precise execution of instructions led to what collies were used in various fields. During World War II, the breed was used even in the fighting. They easily found mine, and without fear of running to the wounded soldiers, transporting drugs.
With a gentle nature and great intelligence, collies are excellent companions for their owners, whatever lifestyle they have not chosen for themselves. Dog accurately adjusts to his master and shared his whole way of life. Especially good dog of this breed get along with children. They seriously take over the responsibility for child care. Colley will preserve and protect the child in every situation.
Good manners and quiet Collies may create the impression that the dog is completely harmless and except for entertainment will not do. But it is not so. Collies are very loyal to other animals and people. But if its owner or herself in danger, the dog is able to give a fierce resistance to any enemy. It also makes a great Collie guards and bodyguards.
In addition Collie have a particularly sharp mind. The dog quickly learns the different commands, feels great desire of the owner. Playful and inquisitive character of the Collie makes a great companion for children. It deserves special attention the memory of the dog.
Proven collie dogs and how great film actors. A film in which the leading roles were taken Collie dogs very much. But, certainly, the most famous of them is still a Lassie movie, which was filmed on the basis of the plot of the book of the famous American writer Eric Knight.
It is a magnificent type of dog with a calm dignity. However, no detail in the general form can not be disproportionate.
The structure of the body is different strength and activity, it is free from clumsiness and any trace of coarseness. The expression is very important. If we consider the characteristics related to this, it is determined by the total balance and the right combination of skull and foreface, size, shape, color and deliver eye and properly planted and properly carried by the ears.
The friendly, with no trace of nervousness or aggressiveness.
HEAD AND SKULL:
Properties of the head are of great importance; it should be considered in relation to the size of the dog. When viewed from the front or side, head resembles a well blunted, clean wedge, being smooth in outline. The skull is flat and gradually tapers at the sides of the ears to the tip of the black nose, cheek bones without expression and without the impression that the face is thin and sharp. In profile, the upper line of the skull and muzzle are parallel and straight and have the same length. They are separated by a weak but noticeable shift from the forehead to the muzzle. The mid-point between the inside corners of the eyes (at the same time the center of a correctly placed forehead to muzzle) is the center of balance of the head. End of smooth well-rounded muzzle blunt, never square. The lower jaw is strong and well-formed. Depth of skull from brow to the bottom line of the lower jaw can never be excessive (the whole skull is not deep). Nose - always black.
A very important point, they give the dog sweet expression. Medium size (in any case not small), slightly slanting, almond-shaped. Dark brown except dog blue merle color who have one or both eyes may be blue or blue flecked. Expression full of intelligence, with quick, alert look when listening.
Small, not too close to each other, but not far. The rest laid, but when alert brought - they move forward, and stay elevated, ie, about two-thirds of the ear standing upright and the upper third of hanging naturally reaching the horizontal line of inflection.
Muzzle / bite:
Teeth of good size. Jaws strong, with excellent, uniform scissor bite, ie upper teeth gap comes to the bottom, and the teeth square to the jaws.
Muscular, strong, appropriate length, well arched.
Shoulders sloping with good angulated. Forelegs straight and muscular, with elbows turning neither in nor out, have not too strong bones.
In relation to height at withers slightly longer; The back is strong, slightly arched loin. Ribs well sprung, chest deep, with fairly broad behind the shoulders.
Thighs muscular, clean and sinewy, well angulated hocks. Hock - low-set and powerful.
Oval, with thick pads, fingers on the bony front legs, and hind legs - a little less bony and tight to each other.
Long gets, at least to the hock. The rest is kept low, with a slightly curved tip. In the excited state - can hold up, but never over the back.
It is the essential characteristic of the breed. A sound dog is never out at elbow, but the front legs are put in motion relatively narrow. Cementing, intersecting or roll of highly undesirable. When viewed from behind the hind legs from the hock to the ground are parallel, but not close to each other. Seen from the side movements smooth. Hind legs powerful with plenty of drive. Preferred respectively stride, easy and free.
Fits the contour of the body, very dense, smooth coating of hair, hard to the touch; undercoat soft, furry and very tight. Mane and frill very curvy. On the face mask and hair smooth and short. The tips of the ears with a smooth and short hair to the base of the ears wool lengthened. Forelegs feathered. Hind legs above hocks dressed lush hair, however, below the hocks are covered sufficiently short and smooth hair. The tail is richly dressed.
There are three recognized colors: sable - white, tricolor and blue merle. Sable: any shade from light gold to rich mahogany, is shaded sable. Light straw or cream colored highly undesirable. Tricolour: predominantly black with rich tan markings on the head and limbs. Rusty plaque coating on the hair is not highly desirable. Blue Merle: predominantly clear, silvery blue, with black spots or black-marbled pattern. The bright tan markings preferred, their absence not penalized. Large black markings, slate-gray or rusty plaque coating on the hair and undercoat highly undesirable. White markings: all of these colors can have a more or less typical white collie markings. The following figure is an advantage: fully or partially white collar, white chest, legs and feet, white tail tip, muzzle or skull - white blaze.
Height: Males - 56 - 61 cm;
females - 51 - 56 cm.
Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault, the evaluation of which should be in exact proportion to the severity of the deviation.
Note: Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.
Characteristic of the breed:
To enable the Collie to fulfill their natural duties of a shepherd's work, its physical structure should be based on the strength and activity, without awkwardness and without any trace of coarseness. Expression - one of the most important criteria in determining the relative value of the dog, achieved the right balance and combination of skull proportions of the head and muzzle, size, shape, color and placement of eye, correct position and put your ears.
Colley must immediately attract the attention of a dog of exceptional beauty, stay with quiet dignity, no part of the body which can not be out of proportion in relation to the whole.
HEAD AND SKULL:
The quality of the head is of great importance and should be considered in relation to the size of the dog. When viewed from the front or side of the head has a general resemblance to the rather blunted, clean wedge, smooth in outline. The skull should be flat. Lateral lines should gradually taper from the ears to the end of the black nose, without prominent cheek bones or narrowing in the muzzle. When viewed in profile the top line of the skull and the topline of the muzzle of equal length and lie on two parallel lines separated by a slight but perceptible shift (stop). The mid-point between the inside corners of the eyes (which is center of a correctly placed) is the center of balance in length of head. End of smooth, well rounded muzzle blunt, but not square. The lower jaw is strong, clean lines, and the depth of the skull from the eyebrows to the bottom edge of the jaw must not be excessive. Regardless of the color of the dog's nose should be black.
They represent a very important feature and give a view of the dog "sweet" expression. They should be of medium size, set somewhat obliquely, of almond shape and dark brown color, except for the color blue merle whose eyes are often blue or blue patches (one or both, or part of one or both). Expression of the full intelligence, with quick, lively eyes when listening.
Small audio and positioned too close to each other on top, or on the contrary, too sides of the head. In the quiescent state, they must be laid back, but cautious - lifted and deployed forward in the semi-erect position, so that about 2/3 of the cost of the ear, and the upper third of naturally tilted forward, below the horizontal.
The teeth should be of good size, with the lower incisors close fitting to the rear of true cutting edges, a small gap between them is not considered a serious drawback.
It must be muscular and strong. of sufficient length, with good bending.
The shoulders should be sloping, well angulated. The front legs - straight and muscular, with elbows turning neither in nor out, to the extent of bony.
It should be slightly stretched relative to the height at the withers, back firm with a slight rise at the waist, elastic rib. chest deep and fairly broad behind the shoulders.
With muscular thighs, clean and sinewy below, with well bent stifles. Hocks low lowered and strong.
You must be oval in shape, with a well padded, toes arched and are closed together ("in the lump"). The fingers on his hind legs nesklko less curved.
Movement - one of the hallmarks of the breed. Properly moving dog is never out at elbow, puts his front paws although relatively close to each other. Crossing and rocking highly undesirable. The hind legs from the hock to the ground when viewed from behind should be parallel. Their movements are powerful and energetic. Seen from the side movements smooth. Preferred moderately long step, it should be easy and is done quietly and without effort.
It should be long and the last vertebra reach at least the hock. At rest hangs down, but with a slightly curved end up. Excited dog can carry the tail, "fun", but not over the back.
Should fit the contour of the dog and be very dense. The top coat is straight and stiff to the touch, undercoat soft, downy and thick, which is almost completely covers the skin. The mane and frill should be very abundant, the hair on the muzzle is short, the same as at the ends of the ears, the hair on the ears should be longer to their base. The hair on the front legs form a long "feathering" on the hind legs above the hocks - such as abundant and below - short. Hair on the tail very rich. White markings: coat may have white markings to a greater or lesser extent. Preference is given to the following markings: white collar, full or partially white "dickey" legs and feet, white tail tip. White mark may be located on the face, the frontal part or both together.
SIZE AND WEIGHT:
Dogs 22-24 inches (56-61 cm) Bitches 20-22 inches (51-56 cm)
Males 45-65 pounds (20-29 kg) Bitches 40-55 pounds (18-25 kg)
The length of the head is clearly out of proportion to the body; firmly rejected inharmonious head and sloping skull. It is undesirable underfilling, pointed snout, bulging skull, too protruding occiput, prominent cheekbones, a concave or "Roman" profile, undershot or overshot, lack of teeth, round or light-colored or dull and bulging eyes. The body is flat, short and stocky, straight shoulder or knee, twisted elbow, forearm curves, cow hocks or straight hocks, most libertine or "cleft" paw paws turned inward or outward. long, weak pasterns, short, crooked, bent sideways or tail carried over the back; soft, silky or wavy hair, underdeveloped undercoat; erect ears, low-set ears, excessive nervousness.
Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.
The three recognized colors are sable and white, tricolor and blue merle.
Sable - any shade from light gold to a thick mahogany or dark sable. Color Light straw or cream is very undesirable.
Tri-color - mostly black with bright tan markings on the legs and head. It is undesirable rusty hue guard hairs.
Blue merle (harlequin) - predominantly clear, silvery blue color, colored with individual patches of black marble. Intense red markings are desirable, but their absence can not be considered a defect. Large black spots, blue-gray (graphite color) color or rusty tinge on the top coat and undercoat are highly undesirable.
The main traits of modern rough collies were laid at his distant ancestors - the working collie, back in the days when the exterior details have not played a role in the selection of sires. The main quality for males and females from which the offspring received was excellent work with the herd and complete obedience to the shepherd. In carrying out their daily duties shepherd with a herd of passing a lot of miles, I could not fulfill its mission without the help of his clever collie. One such dog that knows what is required of it, can do the job, which required the combined efforts of twenty men.
City resident who knows collies only in appearance, seeing them on the crowded streets, where there are no sheep, that is, outside of their normal environment can hardly be properly assessed mind Collies and their real value. To learn Collie properly, it is necessary to see them at work, in places teeming with sheep, observe how the agility they surround their scatter "flock" in the vast hilly spaces are collected, runaway aside, sheep in the herd and drive it in front of a compact mass in the corral. We would have to see how they manage their stubborn team on narrow roads, making their way easily on the surface of their woolly backs, or hold on one section of the field, one of its eyes, the whole herd.
The main work of the Collie was grazing, rather than the protection of the herd from predators - for this is the larger and more powerful wolfhounds with strong aggressive tendencies. The structure of the jaws bite collie does not allow such a force to cause serious injury, even in ancient times dogs, missing the entire mouth and mutilating cattle, just destroyed. Therefore, all attempts to get overly aggressive collie usually tolerated and fail. We often see such a "victim" of training, which replaces the hysterical aggression. And it's not just the structure of the jaw. This is mainly due to the fact that throughout the history of this race, the dogs tried to instill instinct prohibiting the first attack, both on animals and on humans.
It was necessary for the dog every day to communicate with the person and do the heavy work of the shepherd. But this instinct has never interfered with the dog to defend itself and protect its owner from the real danger.
So your call, having the innate good nervous system, loves his master and his family properly educated and trained, in no way yield to other breeds the ability to stand up for yourself and your friends.
Shy by nature
, Collie did not immediately establish a friendly relationship with strangers, but if the appropriate manners to earn his trust, then his attachment can not match any other animal. I must say that the Collie prefers to focus their affection on one person, and not to divide it among many. Noticed that sold or resold in the adult collie is not so trusting and devoted to his new owner.
If you breed longhair Collie is a trait that can be called junk, it's overflowing enthusiasm observed in many dogs. But this is usually the case with those who do not get enough time to walk and exercise. In his veins flows the blood of Collie many generations of working dogs. Lethargy is alien to their nature, and if the dog "nuditsya" idle, its power to find a way out. From this imaginary 'stubbornness and disobedience "to walk for five minutes in the morning and evening dog. Collie dog is unsuitable for people from morning to night employment matters, or spend a lot of time on business trips.
From the foregoing, it does not follow that calling requires a very long walks and great exercise. These dogs have a dry-strong constitution and adult animals do not require special training in order to maintain good physical shape, as large "loose" Newfoundlands, St. Bernards and hairless dogs, whose foreign glamor is largely due to a pronounced relief muscular system, to ensure that it is not so simple. Walk with the master of the quiet pace, occasionally leaving the whole family on the nature - the adult collie ample exercise.
Not many dogs are trained as easily as collies, if the trainer understands dogs. But while Collie generously gives himself the power of host commands, it is not easy to get to repeat what he has already done, and done well. Some interpret it as a lack of intelligence, but this is not true.
Collies can do a nice repertoire of the most difficult tricks, and when he is forced to repeat over and over again is something that he has already done with the whole dog haste and diligence, he perceives it as a folly on the part of the owner (begins to doubt his mental faculties). Not just on a training platform and a campaign on roaming have observed that the worst attitude in young collies are added to the hosts teenage allow themselves to dirty tricks against their pets.
Collie idealizes his master and highly respected as long as their actions are not the dog leads to the conclusion that this person is not a defender, not a friend, not the leader, but just being on the other end of the leash.
The basis of the best possible relationship with the collie can only be mutual respect.
Rough collie - dog with a sharp mind, men and women with charming manners. He never gets involved himself into trouble, and meeting them, behaves most prudent manner. At first, he simply ignores trouble holding themselves above such things. However, when the patience of "his exhausted, he knows how to stand up for themselves the best way. Anyone who bought a collie is only necessary to remember that this is not a fighting dog, and try to protect your pet from abuse owners of large dogs vicious, considered the highest "valor" to set on his beast collie. It is the poor in spirit people trying by their dogs to get rid of their own inferiority complex, and do not understand how you can keep your dog not to intimidate others, and for fun to have a friend, a companion to spend your free time and an excellent show dog, which is not decorate scars.
Work with the sheep made of a collie dog with a deep understanding of their own usefulness, and today, when the Collie is not used as a herding dog, her hereditary instincts need some release. Collie feels completely happy if performs some work, and it is characteristic unusually developed sense of responsibility. To display all of the best features of his character collie, probably to a greater extent than any other breed of human needs. He is full of dignity, and requires only a friendly treatment. Obedience to it can only be voluntary. If you handle it roughly, his character may change dramatically unfavorable, he will be angry and very stubborn. At the same time, with good handling collie will do all that is necessary, not only the first word, but also with a glance of his master.
With respect to the members of his family and surrounded by other animals Collie takes a lot of patience and love. Collie - a good companion for children (this is a proverbial), he loves and cares about touching them. But the big mistake is to think that Collie is also tolerant of other people's children. Therefore, little children in contact with another dog is always appropriate vigilant parental eye, even if the child lives with her collie, and is not afraid of dogs. It should also be noted that the adult collie can negatively react to familiarity on the part of a stranger, and hysterical loud voice passers lead dog in a state of excitement and ready to defend himself and his master.
"Rough collie is ideal for people who like to give your dog a lot of affection and attention, love beauty, which is nice to see on the walk lively dog, is a pleasant companion that you can take with you everywhere, those who love long-haired dog of medium size, Collie - the most preferred species.
You can go further and say that even for those who prefer a small hairless dog, a collie other advantages outweigh apparent disadvantages.
Those looking for as a home companion faithful and affectionate, neat, beautiful and intelligent dog, a good friend at home and walk, do not regret the cost of this long-haired collie. Because I do not keep a collie - is to miss the many delightful nature of hell, which can not be found in any other breed ... "
From the earliest days of visiting the house of a collie pup on you lie three very important responsibilities: walking, feeding and caring for a puppy. The proper implementation of these duties will depend on the health of the dog.
The dog should be fed properly, or the lack of attention and food will lead to disease of the dog, as well as the difficulties in everyday life and training. Puppy can not put on a sofa or bed. He can jump off and fallen down, break yourself paws. Do not put it under low objects is not desirable, this will lead to curvature of the spine.
The puppy must have their toys: rubber ring, ball. The puppy should not be given toys that contain small parts, it can swallow them and choke. Nibbling toy puppy will leave your shoes and furniture alone.
When the puppy is small, it is necessary to take both hands. Since his weak muscles, poor taking can lead to sprain or dislocation. Start your computer and all connected Samsung monitor, you will find all necessary information for the care of the dog.
Colley brings great cold, bad weather, so you can keep it on the street. She - freedom-loving dog, tied it to the booth can not. If you keep it in the apartment, then prepare for her permanent place. The ideal place would be a quiet, warm place with plenty of natural light.
Mattress for dogs can do, horsehair, wool or ordinary grass. The thickness of the mattress should be three - five centimeters. In addition to the mattress you need to prepare some removable pillowcases. Fasteners in pillow cases should be inside. Change pillowcases should be twice a month.
Make sure that the apartment was not draft. They may lead to various diseases, including dogs can cause conjunctivitis.
Collie very friendly and even-tempered dog that will not bring much trouble to their owners. But in order to grow a smart dog, a collie puppy training to be competent and systematic. This dog is a fully living host, so the owner of the puppy itself should give him a positive example. If the puppy is nervous and unpredictable, then that is how you are applying to them.
Growing collie puppy must combine affection and warmth with the ability to intelligently issue commands. Sometimes Collie puppies fairly timid. The home team is trying to reassure them affection and a long conversation, and even condescending. It can not be done. Take this strictly, and then take his game or unobtrusive in training. Problem comes from the period of 5 months. Puppies quickly catch that many owners do not want to bring a dog or give it very little time. In this case, and she does not want the dog to be obedient. Collie descent should not be given. But education should be based on the severity and not on violence, or screams. To encourage all may come: praise, toy, walk, treat. You yourself have to determine what is best. And then your Collie will do everything that you want.
Raising a puppy with his inseparable in training. Training a puppy Collie will be burdensome, if you are really close to the dog. This should be done consistently and systematically. The first command, which must be brought up in the puppy - a nickname. Change it is not desirable as the use of "baby talk" and affectionate nicknames. If you are constantly called puppy named, that he learned that the appeal to him.
To start buy a collar and leash (about 2m). Going for a walk, drive a puppy on a leash, giving the command "forward". It will be opening before the team in training "close." If your dog is afraid, then you need to support it. Sometimes the puppy enough 5 minutes of training, but 4-5 times a day. You can train up to 15 minutes a day. Less Collie puppies is that they are often too timid. Before the train collie, please be a delicacy. Puppies of this breed are very fond of delicious. But let's not just a treat. Wait at least approximately the correct execution. Letting the puppy off the leash, wait about 10 minutes until he retires at 5-10 meters, and then, holding in his hand a treat, fervently shout nickname, and command "to me." If the puppy does not understand what you want from him, and did not run for you, you can repeat the command, and squat, or pat her hand on his leg.
Collie Training at home - is also an integral part of the educational process. The command "place" should be brought up from an early age. The puppy should be a lounger and a cozy and warm area. The dog does not have to sleep anywhere! If the puppy does not want to lie down in his place, then you need to teach him to do so. Go to the beds, give the command "place", and set him on his puppy. He will not sit there for a long time, so the command you want to repeat, to put it in place and encourage delicacy. Over time, it will execute the command. But do not overdo the command "place". Moving puppies do not like to sit on the rug for a long time, and if you force them to do it too often, they hate this team.