Doberman - a rather enigmatic and mysterious rock in terms of their origin. The researchers were able to find sources that confirm that breeding Dobermans began in the XIX century. But that's who was the progenitor of the breed can not say exactly.
The story of the Doberman is quite interesting. The dogs are named after Friedrich Louis Dobermann, who was involved in the collection of taxes from the citizens of the city. Since this work was quite tense, and sometimes come across inidividy who refused to peacefully give up their savings. Besides transportation of funds in the state treasury as well was a dangerous business, requires serious protection. Reflections on these issues and has led to the idea of Friedrich Doberman attract dogs as assistants to collect taxes.
Having carefully examined all the rocks of the time, the Doberman was not able to pick up the dog, fully meets their requirements. In each breed he found deficiencies. And now, completely desperate, he came to the fact that the breed should be required to bring their own. Everything necessary at the time at his disposal, since in addition to the tax collector, he was also the owner of a shelter for dogs.
Which breed used for what would withdraw Doberman unknown. Friedrich Doberman working on its own breed of dog is not kept absolutely no records. The only source of the origin of Doberman dog handlers began the assumption, based on the various similarities with other breeds of dogs.
The only fact which is known to the researchers, is the fact that the mother of the current Doberman is a dog named Bismarck, who was born to two German pinschers, dobermans purchased at one of the fairs. As for other species, which belong to the core of the breed, the researchers trace similarities Dobermans and such breeds as the greyhound, Manchester Terrier may have been used blue dogs and herding breeds.
After selecting the right dog Doberman began numerous experiments, as a result of which it was possible to create an entirely new breed, which was endowed with courage, patience, learning disabilities and other good qualities necessary ideal guard. Of course those Dobermans, which we see now are different from the first bred by Friedrich Doberman. His successors continued selection, carefully polishing the necessary qualities.
In fact, that would create a new breed of Doberman spent just two decades. This speed and excellent end result has led to a huge amount of discussion and debate regarding as not professional breeders managed to achieve such impressive results. The main hypotheses in this regard are the clear ultimate goal Doberman, uniformity selected him rocks that easily crossed.
By the end of the XIX century Friedrich Doberman dog gained fame far beyond his hometown. Thuringian Pinschers, as they were called at the time, became excellent guards and bodyguards. They even used the local police. These dogs are different strength, speed, endurance, and execute commands without question.
Just Doberman breed started calling after 1894, when its founder died. In honor of Friedrich Doberman dog called Doberman pinscher. But afterwards, paying tribute to his father breeds word Pinscher removed.
Receiver Kennel Doberman became dog breeder Otto Heller. He took very seriously the work of his predecessor and continued selection of the breed. Its main aim was to mitigate the nature of dogs. Despite good learning and high intelligence Dobermans, they often showed their obstinate character and its liberty, especially with regard to strangers. Geller was able to make the dog more obedient and faithful than the more raised their popularity.
After some time in the city of Apolda appeared breeders club Dobermans. Of course the head of the club became Otto Heller. In 1908, dog breed Doberman gained such popularity that the club has acquired national status. All German breeders, who were engaged in this breed, united and continued to further development.
After Dobermans conquered Germany they began to spread throughout Europe. First, breeders began to appear in Sweden, a little later, the dog won Britain. Even in Canada and the United States appreciated the new breed.
Not passed popularity Dobermans and past of our country. The Dobermans were brought to Russia in the early twentieth century. Praising the guard service and the quality of German dogs they immediately began to use the investigative and operational services. It became the first Doberman guard dogs in Russia. But despite the fact that they appeared in our country much later than in other European countries, Russian representatives of the breed often occupy leading positions at the international exhibitions.
Thus, noting the merits of Friedrich Louis Doberman, the popularity of his work to date, it is increasing more and more. Created them breed is a perfect example of a security guard. But most impressive is the fact that he created a new breed of Doberman independently and without any special knowledge.
APPLICATION: Companion, protection and working dog.
CLASSIFICATION FCI: Group 2 Pinscher and Schnauzer, Molossoid breeds, Swiss shepherd dogs. Section 1 Pinscher and Schnauzer. With working trial.
BRIEF HISTORICAL SUMMARY: The Dobermann is the only German breed which bears the name of its original breeder - Friedrich Louis Dobermann (02.01.1834 - 09.06.1894). It is believed that he was a tax collector, the owner of the slaughterhouse (zhivodё rum), and part-time - dog catcher, legally able to catch all stray dogs. Of this population, he selected the particular type of animal. The so called "butcher's dogs", which at that time were already considered a relatively pure breed, played the most important role in the origin of the breed Doberman. These dogs were an early type of Rottweiler, mixed with sheepdogs Thuringia as a black dog with rust red markings. Mr. Dobermann bred these hybrids in the 1870s. Thus he obtained "his breed": not only alert, but highly protective qualities of service, and guard dogs. They were often used as guard and police dogs. Their extensive use in police work led to the nickname "Gendarme dog". They were used in hunting to control large vermin. In these circum- stances, on a matter of course, the Doberman was officially recognized as a police dog at the beginning of the twentieth century.
Doberman - a dog of medium size, strong and muscular. Despite his substance he shall be elegant and noble, which will be evident in his body line. It is exceptionally suitable as a companion, protection and working dog and also as a family dog.
OUTFIT: Doberman - medium size, strong and muscularly built. Through the elegant lines of its body, its proud posture, stateliness and its expression of determination, it conforms to the ideal picture of a dog.
IMPORTANT PROPORTIONS: The body of a Dobermann appears almost square, especially in males. The length of the body measured from the point of the shoulder blade and upper arm to the projection point of the buttock shall not exceed the height at the withers by more than 5% in males and 10% females.
BEHAVIOUR AND CHARACTER: The character of the Dobermann is friendly and peaceful, very devoted to the family and loves children. Desirable moderate temperament and reasonable vigilance. The average threshold of irritation is required for good contact with the owner. Easy ability to train, Doberman working with pleasure and should have adequate working ability, courage and hardness. It requires particularly significant self-confidence and fearlessness, and also adaptability and attention to the social environment.
CRANIAL REGION: Strong, of medium length. Seen from above the head is shaped like a blunt wedge. Seen from the front the crown line shall be almost level and not fall down to the ears. The line of the muzzle runs almost straight to the top of the skull, which is gently rounded, goes into the neck line. Brow ridges well developed but not protruding. However, the frontal furrow is obvious. Occipital bone should not be noticeable. When viewed from the front and top sides of the head need not be convex. A slight bulge between the rear of the maxilla and the zygomatic arch must be in harmony with the total length of the head. The muscles of the head should be well developed.
The transition from Stop: There must be a weak but clear.
Nose: Nostrils well developed, more in width, with large holes, are generally not prominent. Black - at black dogs; brown dogs, respectively, lighter tones.
The muzzle must be strongly developed. Equal in length to the skull. It must have depth. Mouth should be widely opened, reaching to the molars. A good muzzle width must also be in the upper and lower incisors.
Lips: Should be dry and adhere to the jaws to ensure a tight closure of the mouth. Pigment gums should be dark; brown dogs - corresponding, a lighter tone.
The jaws, dentition, teeth: Powerful, wide upper and lower jaw, scissor bite, 42 teeth correctly placed and normal size.
Eyes: Medium sized, oval and dark in color. Lighter shades permitted in brown dogs. Adjacent eyelids, covered with hair. Receding hairline eye highly undesirable.
Ears: Set high, bears standing. Docked in proportion to the head. In countries where docking is not permitted, uncropped ears are well recognized (preferably a medium-sized, front edge close to the cheeks).
NECK: Should have good length in proportion to the body and head. Dry and muscular. It outlines gradually descend in a smooth bending. Vertical hocks de monstriruet great nobility.
Withers: Should be pronounced in height and length, especially in males, which determines the slope of the topline from withers to croup.
Back (from the withers to maklokov): Short and compact, broad and well muscled.
Loins: Broad and well muscled. The bitch can be slightly longer, because required space for the puppies.
Croup: Broad and well muscled, slightly sloping almost imperceptibly from maklokov to the base of the tail, must seem well-rounded, not be horizontal or sloping clearly.
Chest: The length and width of the breast must be in the correct ratio with the length of the housing. The depth slightly arched ribs should be approximately 50% of the height at the withers. Especially broad chest in front of a well-developed.
Underline: Visibly tightened from the bottom of the breastbone to the bottom. Tail: Set high, short docked so that approximately two tail vertebrae remain visible. In countries where docking is not permitted by law, the tail may remain natural.
General appearance: The front legs when viewed from all sides are almost straight, vertical to the ground and strongly developed.
Shoulders: Shoulders oblique, adjacent to the chest, on both sides of the blade ridge is well muscled and protrude above the thoracic spine. The angle of inclination to the horizontal is about 50 degrees.
Upper arm: Medium length, well muscled, forming an angle with blades of about 105-110 degrees.
Elbows: Turning back, turning.
Forearms: Strong and straight. Well muscled. Harmonious length.
Pasterns: Bones strong. Straight seen from the front. When viewed from the side only slightly inclined, a maximum of 10 degrees.
Front feet: The feet are short and close knit (cat). Toes arched. Nails short and black.
General appearance: Due to the well-developed pelvic muscles cereal and hips when viewed from behind Doberman ironed broad and rounded. Muscles, passing from the pelvis to the thighs and shins, end well developed in width, as well as in the area of the thighs, in the knees and legs. The strong hind legs are straight and stand parallel.
Upper thigh: Medium length and width, well muscled. Good hip angle. The angle to the horizontal of about 80-85 degrees.
Stifle: The stifle joint is strong and is formed by the femur and tibia and patella. The knee angle of approximately 130 degrees.
Lower thigh: Medium length, in harmony with the total length of the hindquarters.
Hocks: Moderate strength and parallel. Shin bone articulates with the metatarsus in hock at an angle of about 140 degrees.
Hocks: Short and stand vertically to the ground.
Hind feet: Similar to front feet, toes hind legs are short, arched and close knit. Nails short and black.
MOVEMENT: Particularly significant for official use, and for appearance. Movement springy, elegant, agile, free and ground covering. Perhaps a greater reach in the front legs. Hind legs well stretched and pushed to the required elasticity. The front leg of one side and back leg of the other moving forward at the same time. Should be resistant back, ligaments and joints.
SKIN: Everywhere tight and well pigmented.
HAIR: Short, hard and dense. Tight and smooth, evenly distributed over the entire surface. Undercoat is not allowed.
COLOUR: Black or brown - with rust red clearly defined and clear markings on the muzzle, the cheeks, the eyebrows, the throat, pasterns, paw, paws, on the inside of the hind legs, forearms and under the tail, two spots on the chest.
HEIGHT AND WEIGHT
HEIGHT: Height at the highest point of the withers.
Males: 68-72 cm.
Females: 63-68 cm.
Preferred average growth.
WEIGHT: Males 40-45 kg.
Females about 32-35 kg.
FAULTS: Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the fault, depending on the severity.
General appearance: Deviations in the sexual type; excessive massiveness; too light a dog; too heavy a dog; too high on; thin bones.
Head: Too heavy; is too narrow; too short; too long; transition from Stop too pronounced or too little; rams; bad slope of the top line of the skull; weak lower jaw; round or narrow eyes; light eyes; cheekbones are too developed; lip droops; eyes too protruding or too deep set; ears planted too high or too low; fold in the corner of his mouth.
Neck: Several short; too short; slack skin on the throat; suspension; too (inharmonious) long neck; thin neck.
BODY: Back not strong; croup; soft back; humped back; insufficient or too convex edges; insufficient depth or width of chest; the back (from the withers to maklokov) is too long; underdeveloped front part of the chest; tail set too high or too low; too little or too abruptly pulled stomach.
Limbs: Too little or too much angulation of forequarters and hindquarters; loose elbows; deviations from the standard position and length of levers and joints; too narrow or too wide; Korovin, straightening angles hocks, saber; loose or flat feet, crooked toes; pale nails.
Shirt: Markings too light or blurred; tinted burns; the presence of a mask; a large black spot on the legs; burns on his chest hardly visible or too large; hair long, soft, curly or dull. Sparse coat; receding hairline; large tufts, especially on the housing; obvious undercoat.
Character: It is not enough self-confident; too excitable temperament; increased vigilance; too high or too low a threshold of irritation.
Height: Deviations in growth of up to two centimeters from the standard should be penalized.
Movement; Shaky; limited or hindered; amble.
General appearance: Dogs in the female type, bitch doggy style.
Eyes: Yellow (prey); blue, partially or completely.
Tooth Arcade: Overshot, bite; snack; missing teeth.
Shirt: White markings; pronounced long and wavy hair; markedly sparse coat or large bald areas.
Character: Fearful, nervous and aggressive animals.
Height: Dogs with a deviation of more than two centimeters above or below the standard.
NOTE: Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.
"People talk a lot about the ill-tempered Doberman. Some call it biting others - wayward, others say that he had unbalanced psyche. On the contrary, I know many people who argue that the Doberman - the king among dogs, the best breed. They are both right and wrong. First of all, there is a huge difference between the nature of males and females. When you walk into a house guarded by a Doberman bitch, she instinctively assumes the functions of the defense. Her presentation is very simple. All people are divided into two categories: one consists of the owners, and the other - all the rest are regarded as potential enemies.
Female Doberman is very sensitive and requires delicate relationships. She quickly becomes embittered, when it seems that a stranger threatens its owners. Doberman bitch is like a musical instrument that is easily upset at the hands of a bad musician. It's like giving a Stradivarius fairground clown.
Male Doberman - hot and not terpilivy, always ready to attack, the rapid, aware of the power and has a subtle mind. It requires energetic, skillful handling. He does not tolerate, when it beat even the hosts. It is a friend, not a servant. From the earliest days, it should make it clear who the boss is, and that he should obey only him. However, it must be done wisely and do not in any way violent means, because if you start to beat him, he will think that he is summoned to battle.
Doberman - an exceptional dog. The one who could tame her, has the best dog in the world. The power of a Doberman, his nose, agility and vitality are unmatched. This is a dog for an energetic person, "- said Vittorio Bologna, the oldest in Italy, breeder of Dobermans.
In any case, if you are interested in the breed Dobermann (however, this applies to any of the species), seek information from owners and breeders - people who have experience in keeping and breeding Dobermans, not gather the rumors.
Too many people, those who can not be called a dog-haters, kind and gentle at heart, believe Dobermans aggressive and difficult to dog training. But actually it is not. Doberman - surprisingly gentle, friendly and devoted animal, but ... only with members of their family. All the others - people, dogs, children, dogs - strangers. And with "strangers" should be, at least, alert and not to let them closer than the permitted distance. This is perfectly normal manifestation of the instinct of the defense.
Doberman - this is not a lap dog, like a lap dog or a poodle, so the requirements for it are presented quite different. It would be strange to see strict Doberman enthusiastically licking the hands of the first comer. It is strange and wrong. Because this breed was originally bred to guard, defensive purposes, it is not surprising that the Doberman just ready to cut the throat (or hand) of who encroach on its host. Trust and loyalty of this dog must be earned.
The most common aggressive behavior Dobermann appears due to improper training, or a manifestation of health problems. By raising Doberman, indeed, of any service dog should be treated with caution and patience. Doberman can not be forced to do anything. It can only be persuaded to agree with him. Often the only host depends on whether the grown Doberman puppy obedient, loyal and friendly, and it will grow aggressive, throws children and hosts a monster. After all, the character of each dog, a Doberman and education should take into account his temper and his addiction. In addition, it is easier to prevent the development of any unwanted habits, than to re-educate your dog, or worse, the dog put to sleep only for the fact that at one time the owner of "missed" the first signs of growing aggressiveness.
Although the nature of Doberman undergone a gradual but steady easing in the past few years, the existing now Doberman is still a dog that requires training and intelligence does offer good protection for its owner, for his family, home, car and business.
Despite the vigorous nature of the Doberman and his high intelligence, many people do not make good owners of this dog, though it is not so much difficult as compared to the last century when the Doberman had a reputation as the most evil creature moves on four legs! Uneducated public still strong fears Doberman pinscher, and oddly enough, this attitude has played a positive role in bringing this breed. But, like a hundred years ago, a Doberman, despite its reputation, to date, remains one of the ten most popular dog breeds in the United Shtatah.Otvetit this confusion is easy. The Doberman Pinscher has always been very loyal to its owner, and deserved his confidence to a much greater extent than most other breeds. In addition, Doberman - a dog that becomes very pleasant to talk to and very important part of the family. It requires close contact with those he loves, and when this love is mutual, his character says about himself, and Doberman becomes a natural protector of its owner and his family. He can be trusted host children, his friends, and even employees of the company owner, if a Doberman are treated with respect.
His appearance, namely, the average body size, short fur solid and cleanliness and neatness always done a great Doberman dog for the house, but only in its milder form, when it is easier to train, so Doberman and won its current populyarnost.Ne We should assume that all Dobermans have a gentle disposition, so for all prospective owners of this dog would be very prudent to study its pedigree and meet with the parents of puppies or dogs has grown even before buying a puppy will be made.
In general, modern breeders spend a good job of creating a good character of the dog, when the selection is carried out. There is still a small percentage of shy and aggressive dogs, but fortunately, their number decreases. At this stage, you will need to help secure a breeder or a specialist in the breed them to help you make the best choice in your own particular situation. After you've enjoyed buying Doberman pinscher with your desired character, you immediately feel the pleasure of zhizni.My delighted that you are considering joining the ranks of many happy owners Dobermans, and would like to offer you some tips about how to choose not only the right puppy, but also the right breeder because it is the most important step that you have to do. Since we can not do it for you, we can only offer some tips that may help you successfully start their activities in the field of growing its dobermana.Esli it will probably go and choose a puppy yourself, even if it means that you have to travel far. This will allow you not only to meet the breeder that offers you a puppy, but also to see the conditions in which contains your puppy. Of course, do not forget to pre-arrange a meeting as people, dogs breeders, quite busy and they always have a lot of visitors.
Train a Doberman - a pleasure! It works with hunting, passion and enthusiasm. This reflects one of the basic traits of a Doberman. He is happy already because he has done his job very well, and its owner happy.
Why is sometimes necessary to observe unhappy couples when Doberman (with his temperament something!) Breaks off the leash, looking for "enemies" around, and the owner has made a lot of physical effort to keep their pet. Either the dog runs around the neighborhood, ignoring the sad calls his master. The answer is simple. Doberman, unlike poetry, does not grow "like dandelion by the fence." Left to himself, devoid of physical and mental stress, Doberman becomes unmanageable.
Raising a puppy Doberman
In the first year of life Doberman must determine their place in the pack, and to recognize the authority of the leader - his master. Dog objectively needs a leader, behind which she feels comfortable and convenient. Yes, the Doberman puppy is fighting for the lead in the family, but to win it in the end loses. The dog should be a decent host, which it will submit willingly and joyfully. The puppy, which all are allowed in the house does not become happier. Most likely, it will grow moody and hysterical. Rising friendly attitude, reasonable demands and patience - is a guarantee of long happy years for both parties.
Doberman different mind and intelligence. These positive qualities can turn into its opposite, if the puppy will feel that he is the family head, that meet the requirements of the host is not required. Therefore, in the basic education and training a puppy - patience and firmness, combined with kindness.
Charming creature appeared in your house seems so small and pathetic, that the process of education is often deferred until that time, "when the dog begins to understand something." Unfortunately, in this case, "to understand something" starts to host, namely, that the Doberman is smart and clever, and good use of all the weaknesses of the family. So the process of education must begin with the first days of a baby in the new house.
If you think that the dog should be your friend, you are absolutely right. But friendship does not exclude the fact that the leader, ie mainly in the family, to be still the master. The dog belongs to the category gregarious animals, so if you do not become a leader, vacant place will be someone else. It is not difficult to guess that this is someone who is very smart, with a short tail and coat. Others simply do not know.
We had to observe cases where a person chooses a dog of this breed, based on observation of the behavior of adults, well-mannered Dobermans. Of course, this is a very beautiful sight: a powerful, handsome dog, love is constantly looking view of its owner and perform any of his team. When their own puppy does not grow automatically intelligent and obedient dog, they were extremely disappointed, "After all, he should listen to me!". No! This is what we need to lay the foundations of a puppy in his dorm right, not sparing of time and effort. Only then will reveal all the Doberman best side of his nature.
First - persistence and gradual. Say something, you need to ensure that the puppy did. Worst of all in terms of education - is inconsistent requirements. Let your little charming Doberman so funny asks something tasty when you dine, all members of the family, no, no, and gives him something. Finally, you firmly decide to "stop this outrage." First, all behave as agreed, but the puppy somehow do not believe in your firmness. It continues its efforts to elicit something with a vengeance, until someone could not stand, do not slice it finds itself.
Thus, there is a negative correlation between the consolidation of the word "no", and reward persistence. From your point of view, you may have made a step forward, because gave the puppy or ten pieces, instead of just one. From the point of view of the dog - the opposite is true: if stubbornly ignore the command, you can always get their way. It turns out, you have encouraged behavior that they themselves consider unacceptable.
Rule two - infinite patience. You explained the puppy, and what to do, and he continues to behave differently. Well, then we must seek their own, over and over again by repeating the exercise.
The same applies to the prohibitions. For example, you forbid your puppy to sit at the table when the family dines. He already knew that, but we have to try, all of a sudden this time ban does not apply? Doberman puppy patience is infinite, it is ready again and again to check the hardness of your inhibitions. In this competition you have to show no less patience, explaining the puppy that "no" means it is "no", not "maybe".
Rule three -logichnost and posledovatelnosts standpoint puppy, not your own. You have to learn to put ourselves in the place of your friend and to anticipate his reaction.
Live and active Doberman, especially during the forced sitting in four walls, can cause a lot of hassle. That he pogryzet legs of the chair, then carry off slippers. Punishing a puppy can only be in certain situations, namely at the time of the commission of "crimes". Punishment after some time after an undesirable actions not only ineffective, but harmful. The puppy does not bind his offense with punishment and offended by injustice.
The fourth (but maybe most importantly) rule - emotional contact with the puppy.
The owner - is not only the man who feeds, teaches, encourages and punishes. Puppies should be fun and joyful to be together with the owner, who is his best friend and organizer of the games. Only in this way can easily go to the training, which will not burden and coercion, but joyful task. This means that during walks task master - do not spend time talking with the owners of other animals, and play with a puppy, controlling his behavior and fixing in his mind the model, next to the master of good and fun. Yes, we must provide the puppy to communicate with other dogs to play and run with them, but still the owner - is the best and favorite partner.