Great Dane

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Information and History

Общие данные и История породы: 

Great Dane​ is also called the "gentle giant", "divine beauty" or "canine king" in the community of dog handlers. These dogs are really very beautiful and well developed physically. Besides these noble and peaceful nature of the dogs is also called the world's largest indoor dogs.

Often referred to as the Great Dane​ is still Danish. The name of the breed in the US and sounds like a Great danes (a Great Dane​ or a big Dane). However, this breed to Denmark has nothing to do.

Ancestor Great Dane​ - this is an old German mastiff. Dogs similar to the dogs most likely brought in the fifth century, the tribes of Asia. There is evidence that a similar breed of dog was in China, Egypt and ancient Rome. Well, the rocks that we know, was bred in Germany about 400 years ago.

Initially, the Great Dane​ was launched as a hunting dog on a large beast, for the protection of estates and was used as a guard dog. This breed is a cross between a greyhound mastiff. Many do not know that beneath the calm exterior hides a guard dog. So in the Middle Ages believed that these dogs have supernatural powers and can protect from evil spirits.

This breed is lost in the last century of aggression, which was required while hunting. Today, however, the main purpose of the dog - it's just being a good companion to share a man. And those Great Dane​ really is. This dog likes to lie on the couch, so you should buy a bigger bed. They homebody and sluggard.

Danes have great growth. They are just giants. These legs are of the same size as the full spread arms in humans. This breed, as well as Irish wolfhounds, dogs considered to be the highest. On average, though, Irish wolfhounds have greater growth. However, the English mastiff, which is a close relative of the Great Dane​, considered the most difficult dog, the weight of which can reach up to seventy kilograms.

In Great Dane​ have a habit of recline. They, like Dobermans man stand on his feet and put his front paws on his shoulders. This breed owes its tremendous growth in a very long paws. Although these dogs have impressive dimensions, they are very clever and beautiful, all their movements are very graceful.

The Great Dane​ is a peace-loving, obedient, friendly and very gentle creature. This dog is loyal to the owners, and especially children. However, the six-month puppy has more weight than a child of six. The Great Dane​ is quite playful dog, and so it must be to walk every day. However, this dog does not require a large amount of exercise.

Breed standard

Стандарт породы: 

APPEARANCE: The Great Dane is different noble appearance, combining strength, power, folding addition of body, pride and elegance. With its stately, harmonious appearance, well-proportioned and expressive head great dane looks like an imposing stately statue. Among his canine cousins ​​dog is considered to be a true Apollo.

MAJOR PROPORTIONS: The body is almost square, particularly in males. The length of the body (from the breastbone to point of buttock) should not exceed height at withers in dogs by more than 5%, in bitches by more than 10%.

BEHAVIOUR / TEMPERAMENT: different dogs friendly, friendly-minded, like their masters, faithful and loyal, especially to children. Are reserved to strangers. Confident, fearless, easily trained, obedient. Do not give in to provocations, not aggressive.


Cranial Region:
Skull: In harmony with the general appearance. Long, narrow, expressive; with crisp, chiseled lines, especially below eye level. The eyebrows are clearly marked but not prominent. The distance between the tip of the nose and the transition from forehead to muzzle should be equal to the distance between the transition from forehead to muzzle and markedly pronounced occipital protuberance. The lines of the forehead and muzzle should be parallel. Seen from the front the head appears slightly flattened laterally, broad nasal bridge as possible. Zygomatic muscles slightly drawn, do not act.
Passage from Stop: Clearly defined.

Nose: Well developed, more broad than round with large nostrils. Nose must be black; exceptions are dogs color "harlequin" (white with black patches) have desirable black nose, but may be black with pink or flesh-colored markings. In blue dogs possibly lightening the nose to anthracite (diluted black) color.

Muzzle: deep, rectangular much as possible, with clearly defined corners of lips. Lips dark pigmented. Dogs color "harlequin" admitted the existence of incomplete pigmentation of the lips or skin color.
Jaws / Teeth: Jaws well developed, broad. Strong, healthy teeth (42 teeth according to the dentition formula), with complete scissor bite.
Eyes: Medium size, with a lively, friendly and intelligent expression. If possible, the most dark, almond-shaped, with a tight-fitting lids. In blue dogs may be a slight lightening of the iris. Dogs color "harlequin" also allowed a slight lightening or the presence of different colored eyes.
Ears: drooping naturally, set high, medium sized with the surrounding cheek front edges.

NECK: Long, lean and muscular. Set high, tapering slightly towards the head, slightly tapered from head to body. Neck placed vertically, but slightly tilted forward.

Withers: forming the highest point of the housing. He expressed thanks to the blades in favor of the line of the spine.
Back: Short, strong, straight, blending smoothly into the lower back.
Loins: Slightly arched, broad, well muscled.
Croup: Broad, well muscled. Slightly downhill from the pelvic bone to the base of the tail, which fades into the tail.
Chest: oval with well-developed ribs, deep, at the bottom descends to the elbows. Broad, with well defined brisket (the front part of the chest).
Underline and belly: belly and groin tightened moderately form a beautiful line of breast, gently curved lines.

TAIL: reaches to the hock. Set high, broad, gradually tapering to the tip. In repose hanging down naturally. In motion or excited, the tail is somewhat raised (with saber-like bend), but not above the back line. Availability brush undesirable.


The shoulder joint: very muscular. Long sloping shoulder blades form an angle of 100 to 110 degrees.
Shoulders: Strong and muscular, close fitting; shoulder length must exceed the length of a few blades.
Elbows: turning neither forward nor back.
Forearm: Strong, muscular. Seen from the front and side, completely straight.
Wrists: Strong, strong, slightly standing out from the structure of the forearm.
Pastern: Strong, straight when viewed from the front, seen from the side slightly tilted forward.
Front feet: rounded, arched, close-knit toes (cat feet). Nails short, strong, the darkest color.

HINDQUARTERS: Strong, covered with powerful muscles relief, through which cereals, pelvis and hip dogs seem visually broad and rounded. Seen from behind hind legs parallel to the front; well angulated knee and hock joints.
Thigh: long, wide, with powerful muscles.
Stifle: Strong, with an almost vertical putting in relation to the hip joint.
Lower thigh: Long, of approximately equal length thighs, well muscled.
Hocks: Strong, firm, turning neither in nor out.
Hocks: Short, strong, almost vertical.
Hind feet: round, arched and tight (cat feet). Nails short, strong, dark as possible.

GAIT / MOVEMENT: Harmonious, free, wide, slightly springy, with a rectilinear movement of the limbs.

Skin: Tight. The solid colors - with good pigmentation. Dogs color "harlequin" pigmented skin should be only under black spots.


HAIR: Hair is very short, dense, smooth and close lying, glossy.
COLOUR: The Great Dane breeding is carried out in three main colors: fawn brindle, black marble (Harlequin), and blue.
"Fawn, from light yellow to deep gold fawn. Black mask are desirable. Even small white markings on chest and toes are undesirable.
"The brindle variety: the basic background of pale yellow to deep gold fawn with black vertical, as clearly traced and distributed evenly across the body stripes. It is desirable the presence of a black mask. Even small white markings on chest and toes are undesirable.
"" Harlequin "(white with ragged black patches): The main background is pure white, preferably with no ticking. Spots deep black color, different sizes, irregularly-shaped, jagged contours evenly distributed along the body of the dog. The presence of gray and brown spots is undesirable.
"Black color: glossy - Black, White markings. Includes dogs Mantle: black dogs with large white markings on the face, neck, chest, abdomen, legs and tail tip, creating the impression of a white dog, covered with a black cloak. This type of color also includes dogs with basic white background and large black spots.
"Blue color: pure light gray (steel) color are allowed white markings on chest and feet.
Height: males not less than 80 cm;
bitches at least 72 cm.

FAULTS: Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault, the extent of which is determined by how much it differs from the standard.
- General: It is not enough pronounced sexual type, enough harmonious, too light or too coarse type of building housing.
- Temperament: The lack of self-confidence, nervousness, a tendency to succumb to provocations.
- Head: Lines of skull and muzzle not parallel, apple head, wedge shaped head, too little transition from forehead to muzzle; unduly prominent cheekbones.
- Muzzle: Wedge-shaped, tapering to nose, with enough drooping, overly moist lips. Convex or depressed nasal bridge, lowered nose.
- Jaws / Teeth: Any deviation from a complete set of dentition (the absence may be permitted both PM1 in the lower jaw). Out of the total of individual cutters to put in a line of the jaw is too small, poorly developed teeth.
- Eyes: Raw (pendulous) eyelids, conjunctiva bright red color. Clarified the eye, eye patches or amber. Watery eyes or colored in all colors except for "harlequin". Wide or close set. Too deep set or protruding.
- Ears: too high or low to deliver. The ear should not form creases and should not be based on the cheekbone.
- Neck: Short thick neck, "sheep" neck, too dry or suspension.
- Back: wobbles in the movement, sway, hunchbacked. Too long. Highly-backawn.
- Croup: Sloping or totally flat.
- Tail: Too thick, too long or too short, too high or low relative to the supply at the back. Hook-shaped, curved or with a bend to the side. Damaged, kinked, thickened at the end, or docked.
- Chest: Flat or barrel-shaped ribs. Needless to narrow or shallow chest, overly pronounced brisket.
- Underline: Crude groin too pendulous abdomen. Females - hanging unnecessarily drawn nipples.
- Forelegs: Insufficient angle Shoulder joints. Light bone, weak muscles. Curved forearm.
- Shoulders: Loose or loaded. Straight vertical blades.
- Elbows: Loose, turning in or swallowed.
- Forearm: Bent, enlarged excessively in relation to the pastern.
- Metacarpal joint: Increased weak or mobile.
- Pastern: Too slanted or too steep.
- Hindquarters: Excessive corners or insufficiently angulation of the knee and hock. Rapprochement hocks (cow hocks), barrel-shaped or narrow hocks of the hind limbs.
- Hocks: Overly large or unstable.
- Feet: Flat, splayed, long. The presence of dewclaws.
- Gait / movement: mincing step, bound traffic. Pacing or part of the transition to amble. Lack of good coordination of movement fore and hind limbs.
- Coat: Expressed undercoat, dull coat.
- Color:
- Fawn Gray-yellow, blue-yellow, cream or dark fawn.
- Brindle: Basic color silver blue or grayish-yellow (Isabella). Blurred bands.
- "Harlequin": Blue-gray specks on the main white background. The presence of brown or gray-blue areas in black spots.
- Black: Fawn, brown or blue-black color.
- Blue: Fawn or black-blue color.

- Character: shy.
- Jaws / Teeth: Pincer bite.
- Eyes: ectropion, entropy.
- Tail: corkscrew.

- Character: Aggressiveness, fear-aggressive behavior.
- Nose: Hepatic color; forked.
- Jaws / Teeth: Overshot, undershot, wry mouth.
- Colour: Fawn or brindle dogs with white markings on his forehead, a white collar, white feet or "stockings" and white tip of tail.
Blue dogs with white markings on his forehead, a white collar, white feet or "stockings" and white tip of tail.
Marble dogs (color "harlequin"): pure white without stain (albinos), deaf. The so-called porcelain dogs (with spots of yellow, tiger, blue or another color), and so-called gray-marble dogs (with a basic background silvery-blue or gray color).
- Height: Below minimum agreed standard.
Note: Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.



Danes combine a number of different qualities that are not inherent to such a large animal. From this breed their owners often do not get what they expect. Mastiffs are sociable, friendly and gentle animals. With this breed of dog to any member of the family it is very easy to find a common language, as well as other pets. They were fixed stereotype of guard and protector of the family, which, of course, there will be no more than a single family. See also What to do if the dog is itching What should I do if the dog does not eat What to do if the dog choked fighting breeds of dogs What to do if your dog sick Appearance of the animal pretty much does not correspond to his character. But if you look on the other hand, the danes are resolute and fearless. Truth be told, it will not force him to seek adventure or to run into trouble. If we talk about other people, the dog is more restrained than aggressive. But he has a very well-developed protective instinct. This dog does not like sudden movements, especially if they do outsiders. Also, the reaction of the dog depends on himself a stranger to whom he can be completely indifferent, or will show increased interest as a positive person. In the case of the formation of a situation that requires the intervention of a dog for the Great Dane is not necessary to show any action, as its impressive size give it a frightening and dangerous species. These factors are crucial. If this is not enough, the dog may begin to act. If we talk about other pets, then the Great Dane is not a problem to get along with almost any other pets, as well as to become his friend. For owners is not given to verify this claim with other males of the dominant type, since it is important for the two dogs share their territory in order to avoid conflicts, the results of which could have unfortunate. With respect to young children, this breed of dog is very patient. In most cases, this tolerance is brought in dogs Training and education, but they can also have an innate tolerance.

Care and maintenance

Proper care of a German mastiff - a pledge of his health. Creating the right conditions for the owners of the content allows dogam live up to 12-13 years, although the usual life expectancy of these dogs - up to 8 years.

The best place of detention is a spacious apartment or private house. Wool and leather dogs are easy to care - enough to feed the dog, and once a week to wipe wet hair with a towel. Washing and the use of dry shampoo is recommended only if the dog is heavily soiled. Regular roaming dog claws worn down by themselves and very rarely they have to be cut.

Inspect daily the eyes of your dog, especially if he dampish ever. Normal, dry discharge from the eyes is removed with a cotton swab moistened with a decoction of chamomile, furatsilina or special lotion for the eyes.

Hanging ears dogs also require attention. Once a week they inspected and cleaned by means of special funds. Odor from the ears - a reason to contact your veterinarian. If you decide to stop your dog - it is better to make up to seven months. Cropped ears are better ventilated, they appear less infection.

Proper care of a puppy Great Dane - is feeding with the necessary supplements and mandatory exercise. During the growth of its weight dogs often far outstrips the development and formation of joint ligaments. At this time, applies bandaging pastern on the walks, eliminated violent games and dog moves and plays in a convenient mode for it. Mastiffs - not big fans of fast running, so the walks rarely escape away from the owners, trying to keep them always in sight. Therefore, compliance with sparing regime does not give you much trouble.

For Great Dane breed content should give the dog a chance to develop properly and necessarily physically trained different skills. Communication with the mastiff eliminates physical violence - it is a waste of effort and reason for the lack of contact the owner and the dog. Intellectual development is equally important for these dogs than physical. They slowly learn new skills, but remember their whole life.

It is very important for you to imagine how to take care of a German mastiff before in your home appeared dozhonok. Grow a pup of this beautiful, large and athletic breed - not an easy task. It is necessary to monitor the weight of your dog during its growth, not allowing it to get better too. Positively affect the health of dogs long walks.

Despite the fact that some dog breeders positioned as a self-learning dog, which does not need training, in fact, the owner can not do without dog training and acquiring skills of effective management of their mastiff. Large size and decisive character dog - guard need regular obedience classes. However, the training of these dogs should be carried out without the use of violence and beating - keep this in mind when choosing an instructor.

In the house dog should have its place not located in a draft. It is best suitable bench or sofa, raised above the floor at 10-15 cm, so that the dog is not cold. In the summer of dogs should be protected from overheating, and in the winter will not give them to lie or sit on the cold ground for a long time. Aviary for dogs should always be with a wooden floor. Winter maintenance dog on the street is possible only if insulated enclosure with artificial heating.

Training and education

Дрессировка и воспитание: 

One of the first exercises is to walk on a leash. Walking the dog, leading her to his left on a leash length of about 2 meters.

Go straight, releasing the tension on the leash if the dog zabezhit forward, then make a U-turn around, gently pulling on the leash. At that point, when you turn around, it will tighten the leash and the dog starts to pull him, even in the opposite direction. Let's say your German dognauchilsya right to walk on a leash. But how he will behave, if you let him go? It shall enter into force on a moment like podzyvanie.

At the beginning of this exercise is carried out in a quiet and secluded place, where nothing can distract your pupil. Stock up on a few slices of meat or dog biscuits and try to let go of the puppy. After a few seconds begin to move away in the opposite direction, beckoning him to his nickname. Rather Dane puppy rush to you. Wait for it, and just reward treat.

With this exercise the puppy will begin to associate the Dane podzyvanie the promotion, so do not hesitate to run up to you. True dog of this breed different independent character. But if you stock up enough patience, the results are not long in coming. Teach your puppy to respond to a nickname, you can start working out the command "Sit!". Walk step by holding a dog on his left, and then stop and say the word "Sit!"

At the same time with your right hand, pull the leash slightly upwards, and left click on the area between the loin and croup a puppy, forcing him to sit down. Once the dog properly perform this exercise, encouraging her a treat and praise. After a few exercises to learn the dog to sit on command.

It must be stressed that as soon as the dog will master these skills, she will begin to use them as if they were laid in her nature. Therefore, if you can no longer devote time to this type of exercise, do not try to ensure that your friend whenever you give him the appropriate command, executes it perfectly.

Great Dane: Educate yourself companion

Despite the fact that the dogs of this breed is characterized by impressive dimensions, they are very kind, patient and loyal. If you seriously prefer raising Dane, then he will make a great companion that will protect you in a difficult situation. In addition, it is a social dog, which brings joy to chat with all members of the family.

- All The same before the start of the Great Dane, all think carefully, because a very important role played by education of the dog, if you do not have time for this, then your pet can turn into a stubborn and rebellious, and give you a lot of hassles. Therefore, the first rule in the upbringing of a Great Dane - Spend as much time to it.

- Secondly, it is important to start training at an early age - 5-6mesyatsev when begins the formation of the psyche, then obedience you provided, and if you start with an older age, the learning curve is a little more complicated.

- Third, when training do not use harsh methods, it is easier to say a firm "no" and you will be 100 percent understood. Great Dane dog is very sensitive, so it is not necessary to use force, even more so to beat her fingertips as your hands have to give affection. As it is impossible to carry out the punishment of the dog on her place, so this command "Place" can then be carried out, because the dog will again wait for sentence. The earliest commands that your dog has to remember - "You can not" and "place". - Fourthly, it is very important to teach the dog to walk on a leash and muzzled to its intimidating appearance, he did not frighten others. And you should start already with the puppy for a walk wearing a harness on him.

- Fifth, in the upbringing of the dog, it is important to be firm, if you give the "slack" that your pet can just continue to use it.