Labrador Retriever is a famous and popular around the world breed dogs. History and development of the breed repeatedly studied by various researchers. But, nevertheless, the only true and accurate version of the breed of origin, despite research investigators did not exist. Currently, there are several theories about the origin of the breed.
The name of the breed is associated with the Labrador Peninsula, despite the fact that the ancestors of the breed lived on the Peninsula of Newfoundland. Some researchers link the name of the breed with the black suit of its first members. Black suit is associated with labradorite stone.
According to another version, the name of the breed due to the translation of the word Labrador. In English Labrador is "a hard worker." This version reflects one of the characteristics of this breed of dogs - their excellent performance and exceptional endurance and activity. This version of the origin of the breed, of course, has a right to exist.
The first mention of Labrador dogs found in 1593. Dogs, living in the peninsula of Newfoundland, made a strong impression on the seafaring Portuguese. Seafarers, swim to the shores of Newfoundland, noted the characteristic appearance of dogs. Deservedly been evaluated as working qualities of dogs.
In England also hit Labrador Peninsula of Newfoundland. In this country, the breed has been further developed. A number of researchers believe that the main qualities of the breed was formed on the peninsula of Newfoundland, and the British just popularized it. This version is based on the results of archaeological research and the first descriptions of dogs seen by sailors on the peninsula. In the course of archaeological excavations in Newfoundland, it was found that the dog breed nyufaulendskoy resided on the territory of about 4 million years ago. Proponents of this version is a renowned Canadian breeder Dr. Woods. According to his theory, on this peninsula we developed two types of dogs. The first type is a large Newfoundland. The second - a small Newfoundland. A distinctive feature is a large type of loose body, large size and long coat. They can be considered the ancestors of modern Newfoundland. Especially small type is more easily build, mobility, dexterity and incredible passion for the water. Coat small type dogs was short and tough. It is a dog of this type, according to Woods, considered the ancestors of the modern Labrador retriever.
Other researchers determined the priority of British breeders in developing qualities of the breed. This group of researchers claims that the first representatives of the breed were only in England and it was there nyufaundlenskie dogs were crossed with the black pointers and hounds.
The big, shaggy dog attracted the English and they take them to England. Gradually among the English aristocracy came the fashion for dogs Labradors. The British have taken to heart their amazing sporting qualities, endurance. Connoisseurs of dogs with black fur, which resembles an otter skin, is an English Colonel Peter Hawker. It was he who in 1814 described their exceptional performance and encouraged to use them for hunting. Hawker noted for their ability to aportirovke game. This ability has been improved by crossing the Labrador Retriever and a setter. Hence the prefix retriever went to the name of the breed. "Retriever" in translation from English means "to find and bring the killed game."
In the future, interest in the breed only intensified. In 1830-1840, the Centre spread Labrador retsiver was English port city of Poole. Where dogs were brought to Newfoundland. Despite the fact that in 1885 the import of dogs has been temporarily discontinued due to quarantine - English Labrador lovers that did not stop. In 1870 at an exhibition in Birmingham, Newfoundland and Labrador had the black were considered as different breeds. English aristocrat open nurseries for breeding labrador retriever. It was at this time formed a cult rock. Amazing hunting abilities of dogs labradors shown at various demonstration events. Began to conduct genealogical books. And soon labrador retriever began to make serious competition setters and pointers. In 1903, the painstaking selection work had paid off in the form of official recognition of Labrador as an independent breed.
The period of 1910-1920 years, researchers referred to as "the golden age of rock." Breed got a huge popularity and became fashionable. Initially seen as an elite Labradors hunting breed dogs for the elite. Especially famous at that time was the nursery "Benchori", the owner of which was the Countess Howe Loria. That it has grown a few have become legendary champions of the breed. Pet of the kennel labrador Bolo became a two-time defending champions in beauty and working abilities.
Labrador is becoming popular not only as a hunting dog, but as man's best friend, his companion. At this time, there was a fashion for dogs Labradors sunny yellow.
In 1916 and 1925 in England there are fan clubs Labrador retriever. Continues to carry out breeding with these dogs of different colors.
Currently formulated characteristic of the breed. Labrador Retriever is a dog with a strong constitution. Different activity. Features include a wide skull and deep chest. The body is very compact and muscular. Well-developed thigh muscles. The tail is a feature of the breed. Labrador retriever tail thick at the base, gradually tapering towards the end. Covered with short hair, called "otter." The coat is short, dense, without undulations or feathering with a thick undercoat. Height is 54 - 62 cm, the weight varies in the range 25 - 34 kg. The color of the dog is always solid black, and can also be chocolate brown and yellow.
Breed confidently began its global march, "I went to the people." Every year, thousands of the world's recorded newborn puppies Labradors. These dogs are no longer the privilege of the nobility.
The breed gained the widest dissemination in all countries with well-developed dogs. On recognition of the breed and its popularity is the fact that, in 2013, was born in England and have been registered 76,000 puppies. The first officially registered Labrador puppies were born in the United States and officially registered in 1917. 1931 is the year of the creation of the American club of the breed. In 1995, Labrador topped the rating of the rocks in the US and continues to win fans worldwide.
Currently, very easy to buy a Labrador since breeders in every city.
Labrador Retriever Standard FCI of 1999:
Impression powerfully built dog with a broad head, volumetric chest and strong limbs.
The height at the withers in males - 56-57 cm, females - 54-56 cm. However, a slight deviation in the growth in the standard of the breed is not a major shortcoming.
The skull is wide, but not excessively, without coarse lines. The head looks strong, but thick and round, without fleshy cheeks. The muzzle is not pointed, with a pronounced transition from forehead to muzzle. The nose is broad. Scissor bite, teeth of medium size.
Expression intelligent and friendly. Eye color hazel or brown.
Hanging ears, not too large, set far in the head. Ears are characterized by high mobility, passing mood Labrador.
The neckline powerful and strong.
The back is straight, the loin is short and strong.
Chest broad, but not barrel-shaped, ribs well kept.
Tail of medium length, very thick at the base. The tip of the tail is narrow. Thanks to the hard pelage resembles an otter tail.
The front legs are straight and strong.
The hindquarters are very strong and well developed.
Hocks are low. Feet are round, compact with well-kept distinct pads.
Free Movement of different scale.
Coat consists of short thick wool and waterproof undercoat. At the touch of wool tough on it should not be wavy patterns and feathering.
Labrador require a minimum of care, although they are moderately spring molt.
Color may be black, yellow or brown. Under fawn implied options from light cream to red. Color should be uniform without tan.
Scent Labrador to 25% better than the German Shepherd. Labrador Yoga in the UK received the Gold Medal for the discovery of knighthood 490 cargoes of drugs.
By its nature, the Labrador dog is very calm and peaceful, but at the same time, never give up funny action game. And for him it does not matter with whom to play: with the owner, a small child, other pets or just drive around the neighborhood. The dog behaves very carefully with playmate. If desired, the Labrador can easily train the necessary commands and behaviors. The dog is very receptive to learning.
Pretty solid set of positive qualities make Labrador an ideal dog for the family. But before you start yourself a representative of the breed, you should consider two main aspects. First, if you can be given the dog enough time? Labrador loves attention and is quite hard going through the long separation from the host. It can even turn into a serious illness. The second point: if you have enough space for a dog. Labrador breed large, and its high activity requires constant movement.
High learning and wit dogs are its indisputable advantages. But due to the fact that the dog is too active and likes to fool around slazhivaetsya the impression that the dog is stupid. Besides, Labradors feature is that their psychological maturity sets in already after three years. And until that time, they may be different too high credulity, playfulness and good humor. But with proper education and training is easily corrected.
Labradors are simply created to play with the child. But, it is not necessary to leave a child alone with a dog. Labrador puppies immature and quite able to get involved in the game, resulting in inadvertently able to overturn or hit the child. In general, the dog will do anything to protect and defend children.
It is also worth knowing that if you are looking for an effective guard their property, Labrador to choose not worth it. Watchdog quality and aggression in these dogs are poorly developed. Of course, considerable size and loud barking quite able to catch up to the rustle of strangers. But the friendly nature of Labrador did not allow him to put any serious harm to humans.
In terms of care of the Labrador breed is very unpretentious. He is quite content with the most common procedures. But all the same certain points should be considered. First of all, it should be remembered that the coat in Labrador has a rather specific structure. It is a short upper ball of wool and a lower weather-resistant undercoat. Special protective layer is very sensitive to frequent washing and shampooing. So washing is limited to only those parts of the body, which is heavily soiled and then only when absolutely necessary. Coat Labrador cleaned herself. And that he looked well-kept, it should be thoroughly combed at least once a week.
Attention also require the dog's ears and hanging. They are subject to frequent pollution, and can cause serious inflammation. As a preventive method you should regularly check the ears after checking for dirt and parasites.
Finally, a very important point for this breed is good nutrition. The fact that Labrador is very easy to get used to the monotonous diet, and it is able to "get hooked" on products harmful to them. It is also a problem when it becomes unhealthy diet fast fat dog. Therefore, the schedule of meals for Labrador and the composition of each of them must make in advance. The ideal situation is feeding meat and vegetables. Flour and cereals rather limited in the number, and if possible at all to remove from the menu.
To pet has been fit and healthy you need to calculate the correct amount of food intake. This is done based on the initial weight of the dog. If you have defined the standard for the dog, but in the process of feeding can see that the dog is gaining weight too quickly, increase the duration and activity of walking pet. If the weight falls on the contrary, it means you need treatment for intestinal worms. In this case it is the most common explanation.
Physical health will help to keep the dog enough exercise. From the nature of Labrador is a very active and playful. Conventional slow walk does not suit them. From time to time you need to give your pet will, taking the leash and allowing worn in the park or the street. If you have access to the pool, allow the dog to swim and sports there. This breed is happy to jump into the water. Especially likes to play with the owner, getting out of the water thrown objects. A perfect solution would be to take out sometimes your pet out of the city, where he will be able to show its full potential. These dogs still remained a strong connection with nature.
Of course, as a guard labrador be slightly helpful. This breed is characterized by a friendly disposition, and a complete lack of aggression. But apart from this, the dogs of this breed lines have incredibly diverse talents and useful qualities, which if necessary can raise a puppy. Of course, this requires some knowledge and skills.
In terms of intelligence and ingenuity, Labrador among other species out in seventh place. Dog able to store more than three hundred different commands and phrases owner. Of course, this indicator Labrador traverses six different breeds. But what distinguishes this breed, among others, because it is selfless desire to please his master dog. In pursuing this goal, the dog catches on the fly all the material in the learning process.
High learning ability, a keen mind, a great memory and a desire to serve man expand the scope of useful skills breed almost indefinitely. It is more than covers the lack of aggressiveness and lack of guard skills. By paying attention to it, breeders from around the world found a very different use of their pets. Many Labradors trained as a lifeguard. Acute flair and endurance of the dog allows it to find and safely delivered to the safety of people who are lost in the mountains or sink in water. There are cases of using rocks as nannies for the children and the seriously ill. Special training allows instill dog skill required to submit items to correct the blanket, open, or on the contrary to close the door or window, and even turn on the lights. In European countries, Labradors are often used to find truffles in the forest. Dog easy to find hidden underground mycelium, sensing it at a great distance.
Labrador excellent companion. Sharing hobbies owner, it can become a very useful and hunting. This is especially true hunting wild ducks and other birds. These dogs move quickly and silently through the woods. Through keen sense of smell and hearing from a distance hear the game. And if the owner shot the animal, labrador immediately rushes to the side and easily brings it.
The main principle of training Labrador is the system used in the overwhelming number of cases of incentives and possible penalties to avoid complete pet. Dogs of this breed is very sensitive. Penalties hurt their desire to please. Because of this greatly upset the dog may even be offended by the owner, which leads to depression or unruly dogs.
You should not blame the dog when he brings you some garbage with a strong odor. It is a natural feature of a dog, not a bug in education. Dog automatically responds to a strong smell, and if deemed necessary thing, carries her to the owner.
Also refers to the characteristics of the breed uncontrollable attraction to water bodies of different shapes and sizes. Sometimes this love of the water leads to reckless behavior. A dog can easily jump into the water from a great height or a muddy pond. And it does not care how the owner will pull it.