The majestic and immensely brave Senbernar is a great companion. These dogs are harmoniously connected simply enormous size and unusual appearance on the one hand, on the other - an incredible wit and good-natured character. Taking a walk through the streets of Senbernar to be prepared for increased attention to the person and your pet.
In the world of the Senbernar he has established himself as a heroic dog. Quite often they are used in mountainous areas to save people run over by a huge mass of snow, formed as a result of avalanches. The breed has everything you need for such a heavy calling. Magnificent hearing and smell make it possible to find trapped people, even if they are buried under a huge layer of snow and rock debris. After the dog is injured entrance are huge, powerful legs that are easy to dig out the snow.
With regard to the origin of the breed, the Saint Bernard features in the structure of its skull and skeleton clearly seen similarities with Mastiffs. These rocks are really very similar, but much larger Senbernar. The weight of an adult can reach a quintal.
The history of the breed is quite interesting and heroic. The first mention of Senbernar date back to XVII century. They are considered to be the birthplace of the Swiss Alps. It was here, in a mountain shelter, founded by Bernard de Menton, the first representatives of the breed. The shelter, which Senbernar were bred to act since the XI century. It was founded as a transit point on the way to Rome.
Shelter, where the monks lived and worked, was in that part of the Alps, where avalanches were commonplace affair. Quite often, the thickness of snow after the avalanche exceed tens of meters. The situation is further aggravated by the cold climate with constant frost. The monks themselves are not always able to save those unfortunates who fell under the avalanche or freeze on the slopes. They need help. That is why the beginning to keep active breeding work to create a perfect assistant in this difficult work. From mastiffs monks brought the first Senbernar. They have excellent endurance and amazing powers to search people. However, they possess significant drawbacks. Short fur covering the body could not be protected from the fierce weather. This led to the fact that most of the new breed was killed to the XIX century. To remedy the situation, the factory owners have added a new breed of blood Newfoundland. Such a step has significantly strengthened the resistance of dogs to cold, without affecting the quality of work on this.
Of course, today there are more modern methods of rescuing people from under the avalanche. But, despite this, in a mountain shelter are still bred Senbernar, who for the last two centuries have saved in the Swiss Alps more than 2 thousand people. Today, they are used not only as savers, but as a faithful companion.
However, setting the stage for a Saint Bernard, it is worth remembering some of the features of the breed, which will help preserve the health and well-being of your pet for years to come.
Bernard is covered with thick hair that covers the body of the two layers. The first outer layer is excellent protection against heat and cold. The second layer eliminates those residues cold or high temperatures, which yet passed through the first layer. This makes Senbernar picky in terms of temperature, but still perfect dog feel, familiar to them, a cold climate.
Thick long hair is quite dirty and requires a lengthy bathing and combing. But it is worth remembering that too frequent water treatments for the benefit of Senbernar did not go. Since they lead to leaching of fat, which is allocated wheel dogs. This is a natural mechanism that allows them to regulate body temperature. Breaking this mechanism can seriously harm your pet.
Speaking about their pets from a shelter the monks say that the ideal of Senbernar rescuers make them good, heroic character and incredible flair. According to them, the Senbernar feels great approaching avalanche, as well as many kilometers of smell impending snowstorm. The dog is able to smell the smell of a man, for 3 kilometers, even if it is under the snow drifts. But the amazing search skills - this is not the only thing that makes it special Senbernar.
If Senbernar is in the mountains man in every way that protects it. He lies down on him, warming his body and licks his face to prevent a person to fall asleep until the arrival of reinforcements.
The most famous member of the orphanage where bred Senbernar is a dog named Barry. On account of his 41 save lives. At the same time, saving people, and Barry himself has repeatedly found himself in mortal danger, but still coped with its task. Affected such incredible courage, the monks introduced a special tradition. Now the strongest puppy from each offspring called Barry.
The high popularity of Senbernar and the heroic character has led to the fact that many people buy a puppy of this breed. But few in this estimate conditions that can offer such a dog.
The enormous size of Senbernar not only look impressive, but establishing certain obligations to their owners. Such a dog need a lot of space to turn around. It is desirable if it is a small garden or courtyard. Besides a huge mass suggests the appropriate amount of food. So what it is to be understood that quite a large part of the budget will leave it at that.
In addition, large and uneven Senbernar lead to quite a serious illness and may need quite often show the pets to the vet, which also costs money.
Senbernar breed standard was first adopted in 1887, but these impressive powerful dog have a long history. This is one of the biggest rock, which was originally used to rescue travelers in the mountains. Today it is a companion dog, a close friend of the man and his defender with a balanced friendly temperament. Animals are not only the overall size, but also a large head with an expressive face and big eyes.
Height at the withers males between 70 and 90 cm, somewhat smaller dimensions branch. The minimum weight of the animal is 80 kg, so you can imagine how it is big and strong dog. Standard senbernaradopuskaet and larger sizes, if the animal is folded proportionally.
The standard was last modified in 2004, according to his Senbernar have a strong muscular body, thick hair, and there are long-haired and short-haired Senbernar. Animals have a thick undercoat and calmly tolerate even the biting cold. Color is only possible in two ways: it can either be white with red spots or red with white spots.
Dogs, fully compliant, become a decoration rocks and producers, giving a new generation of Saint Bernards - smart, obedient and friendly animals.
The breed standard Bernard
Standard FCI № 61
Publication date: 03.24.93
Purpose: Companion, watch and farm dog
CLASSIFICATION FCI: Pinscher and Schnauzer, Molossoid breeds, Swiss zenenhund and other herding dogs
Section 2.2 Molossoid breeds, Mountain type
Without working trial
General: There are 2 varieties of Senbernar - short hair type (Stockhaar) and Collie type. Both species are large in size, proportional, balanced, sturdily built and muscular body with imposing head attentive (guarded) the expression of the eyes.
IMPORTANT PROPORTIONS: Ideal relation of height at withers to body length (measured from the is-of shoulder joint to the ischial tuberosity) - 9:10. Ideal relation of height at withers to depth of chest total length of the head a bit more than one-third of the height at the withers. The ratio of depth of muzzle (measured at its base) to length of muzzle is almost 2: 1. The length of the muzzle is slightly more than 1/3 of the total length of the head.
Behaviour and temperament: Friendly by nature; temperament from calm to rolling stock, vigilant.
Head: massive, impressive and expressive.
Skull: Strong, broad, when viewed in profile and from the front slightly rounded at the base of the ears excited forms the top of the skull with a straight line, which is slightly rounded at the edges becomes strongly developed high cheek bones. The forehead is very cool moves in the face. The back of a moderately expressed. The eyebrow arches are strongly developed. A distinct furrow beginning at the base of the forehead, is held in the middle of the skull head. The skin of the forehead forms folds over the eyes of the lungs, which converge to the frontal furrow. When excited, they are more pronounced, otherwise they would rather invisible.
Transition: clearly defined.
Nose: Black, broad and angular; nostrils wide open.
Muzzle: Gradually wide. Nasal bridge straight, with slight groove.
Lips: edge of lips black. Flews (lips of the upper jaw) are strongly developed, firm and not too much hanging form a wide arc to the nose. The angle of the mouth is always visible.
Cheeks: Only slightly pronounced, very clean lines.
Jaws and teeth: upper and lower jaws are massive, broad, equal in length. Well developed, Complete form a scissors or level bite. Slightly undershot without departing incisors acceptable. The absence of PM1 (premolar 1) and M3 allowed.
Eyes: Medium size, color from dark brown to hazel, moderately deep set with a friendly expression. Desired-tional natural tight closure century. Small corner crease on the lower eyelid with little visible conjunctiva and a little bending of the upper eyelid are allowed. Eye rims completely pigmented.
Ears: Medium size, high and wide planted. Auricles strongly developed. Cloth Ear elastic, in the form of a triangle with rounded apex; the upper edge is raised somewhat, making the cutting edge to the cheeks.
Neck: Strong and fairly long. Suspension moderately developed.
Housing: general view of the imposing, harmonious, well-built and well-balanced, muscular.
Withers: Well pronounced.
Back: Broad, strong, firm; back line straight and horizontal up to the loins.
Croup: Long, slightly sloping, merging harmoniously into the base of the tail.
Chest: the chest of moderate depth with well-sprung ribs, but not barrel-shaped; does not fall below the level of the elbow.
Underline: Slightly tucked up.
Tail: wide at the base and a strong, long tail and heavy. Last vertebrae of the tail gets at least to the hock. At rest it hangs straight down or the bottom third of the slightly bent upward; to initiate rises above.
General: The front legs are straight and parallel seen from the front, delivered widely.
Shoulder: longer than the blade; the angle between the blade and the arm not too blunt.
Shoulders: The shoulder blades placed obliquely, muscular and well fitting to the chest.
Forearm: good length and straight.
Elbows: well fitting.
Forearm: Straight, strong, bony, with muscles.
Seen from the front vertical, is a direct continuation of the forearm; side slightly sloping.
Forefeet: Broad, with strong, tight, strongly arched toes.
General appearance: a slight angle and muscular; when viewed from behind parallel, not close to each other.
Thigh: Strong, muscular, broad.
Stifle: Well inclined, turned neither in nor out.
Shin: inclined and quite long.
Hock: a slight angle, strong.
Metatarsus: Viewed from behind straight and parallel to the set.
Feet: Broad, with strong, tight, well arched, of fingers. Dewclaws tolerated if they do not impede the process of movement in general.
Movement: harmonious, visionary process of movement in general with a good drive from the hindquarters, the back remains stable and calm. The front and rear legs move in line.
Skin: Elastic and smooth the entire surface of the body.
Short-type: The guard hair is thick, short and tight. The undercoat is abundant. Hips lightly dressed, the tail is covered with thick hair.
Longhair type: top hair long straight hair with abundant undercoat. On the face and ears the hair is short; on the thighs and rump sometimes slightly wavy; forelimbs fringed hair; on hips pronounced pants; the tail is covered with longer hair.
Color: The main color is white with small or larger red spots (spotted dog) to a solid red coat on the back and flanks (dog raincoat). Ragged Cloak (with white markings), and the solid equivalent. The spots are permissible from red-brown to light brown. Dark border color is desired. Plaque black on the housing are allowed. Required white markings: Chest, feet, tail tip, trim around the nose, a white blaze on the forehead and a spot on the nape.
Desirable markings: White collar. Symmetrical dark mask.
Size, height and weight:
males: 70-90 cm
Bitches: 65 to 80 cm
Any deviation from the previously listed characteristics should be classified as a shortcoming, so serious, how high the degree of its severity.
It is not enough pronounced sexual type.
The disproportionate appearance.
Too short legs in relation to the total size (short-legged).
The deep folds on the head and neck.
Too short or too long muzzle.
Out at the lips of the lower jaw.
Missing teeth than P1 (premolar 1) and M3. Small teeth (especially incisors).
The slightly protruding lower jaw (light snack).
Too drawn ever.
Sagging or humped back.
Croup higher than withers or chamfered.
Tail curled over the back.
The absence of mandatory markings.
Curved or highly twisted forelimbs.
Hind legs with straight corners, the convergence or splayed.
Incomplete or missing pigmentation of the nose, around the nose, lips and eyelids.
Defective main color such as red-brown specks or spots on white.
Aggressive or cowardly behavior.
Overshot, pronounced undershot.
Blue eyes, cataract (Artificial Eye).
Eversion and inversion of eyelids.
Completely white or totally reddish-brown coat (absence of the primary color).
The coat of a different color.
Height below the minimum.
The dog has physical or behavioral abnormalities shall be disqualified.
The dog must have two full testicles fully descended into the scrotum
Senbernar - a very friendly and quiet dog. He likes to walk, but prefers not to tire himself jogging and leisurely walk long distances. On walks Senbernar will never start a fight with another animal, it tends not to attack and defend itself, even when manifested to his aggression. Representatives of this breed rarely barking, barking, and Senbernar - always an alarming sign, saying that there was something wrong.
You can not keep the animal on a chain, and leave them alone for a long time, since it provokes a lack of confidence and the development of aggression. Senbernar can not be called a guard service dog, it is rather a good and faithful friend, who wants as much as possible to spend more time with his master. He is very friendly to children and is willing to quietly endure any pranks.
Senbernar good trainable, but do not like to bore myself, so occasionally they have to make a move.
Care Senbernar can not be considered too simple, as this breed is one of the largest and most demanding content. It will be important to take care of proper nutrition, enough time for walking, care of hair, eyes, and so on. D. Before you buy a Senbernar, you should consider whether you can adequately support and care for him. If there is any doubt in their own abilities, it is better to choose a smaller animal species.
Features care of the puppies Senbernar
Senbernar puppy care begins with the first hour of your baby stay in the house. This breed is not suited for keeping in an apartment as close to the dog and owners. But this is a great option for a private home, where it is possible to equip a spacious aviary in the courtyard. Little puppy at first kept in the house, and then gradually accustom to life on the streets, and we need to take care of comfortable and warm booth, where the dog will be able to stay comfortably.
Puppy you want to select your own seat with a comfortable bedding, you will need to teach him to sleep there. You can not let him get on the bed and sofas, as then you will not be able to wean from it as an adult dog. It should soon teach him to comply with the rules of the house and spend more time walks. Senbernar to walk at least three times a day, and the animals are more like not to run and walk. To perform the commands they learn to quickly enough.
Caring for the hair, eyes, teeth Senbernar
Animals of this breed can be long-haired and short-haired, on which depends the grooming. Short-haired dog must-combing at least once a week, long-haired - every day. Bathe them mono as pollution, are used for this special veterinary shampoos. Animals love the water, so swimming for them - a real treat, especially in summer.
Be sure to take care of the eyes of Senbernar, because animals often suffer from purulent discharge. Daily rubbed his eyes with a napkin, and if the inflammation is still occurred, need a special ointment. For such a breed like Senbernar, the content requires regular check-ups and strict adherence to the schedule of vaccinations. Take care of the protection of fleas and ticks, which the dog need to wear a special collar.
It is important to pay attention to oral hygiene. Dogs are prone to excessive salivation, so the muzzle puppy and an adult animal should be wiped after each meal. Mandatory and care for the ears. They must be periodically inspected and cleaned of contaminants.
Senbernar - a very sociable dog, and they are difficult to tolerate solitude, especially at a younger age. In general, more time should be given to games and training, as a dog owner has to get used to and learn to fulfill its requirements. They can not be punished physically, humiliation and pain can lead to distrust and aggression. If the puppy is too rambunctious, it can be taken by the collar and shake gently - so young mother soothing flared.
It is necessary to take care of a large number of toys, or puppy can start to chew the furniture and even the corners of the room. Out of sight is a puppy in advance to remove all hazardous or valuable items, since the animal is with great curiosity to explore the territory, trying things on taste. Dogs need to wean jump on guests and passers-by, as it may in the future even cause injury due to heavy weight.
Knowing how to care for and educate his Senbernar, you can get a good and intelligent friend of the assistant and the defender, who will be loyal and faithful to your home.